Created Date Wednesday, 22 November 2017

Abudwak District Conflict and Security Assessment - 2016

Police as the formally recognized institution mandated to provide security services in the district is weak in terms of competency, proficiency and logistics. There is only one police station in the town and the number of police officers available is not sufficient and generally had low morale due to lack of incentives. As a result, residents sought security services from informal bodies composed of religious leaders and clan elders within their areas. Majority of the survey respondents (61%) were not aware of the police presence in the town. People reported to traditional elders (77%) and the religious leaders (13%) for the security issues they encountered. More than two thirds (68%) of the respondents had low trust in the police. In guessing the performance of the police over the past year, respondents either did not know what to answer (44%) or reported decline (51%) in the police performance.


Created Date Wednesday, 11 May 2016

DHAHAR District Conflict and Security Assessment - 2016

altDhahar district is situated west of Gardo district and comprises the capital town of Dhahar and 8 other satellite villages. According to the Puntland government sources, the population of Dhahar district was estimated at over 60,000 individuals, while that of Dhahar town was estimated at 15,000 individuals.1 The locality secured the title of district on a presidential decree by the former Somali Government in 1985; as well as through a regional entitlement from the Puntland administration in 2010. Dhahar town, in addition to being the district’s administrative capital, also constitutes the regional administrative epicentre of the newly established Haylan Region. Nowadays, the district is rated ‘Grade A’ with a district council comprising 27 members, of which 8 are female. Historically the area exceled in good pastureland, thus pastoralists regularly visited the area for grazing their livestock, however they were (usually) forced to migrate to far off water points during the two dry seasons of the year as this area lacked enduring water sources. Permanent settlement at the location of present Dhahar town started in 1958, when the then British Colonial Administration, which ruled the locality, drilled a well. Since then, the town has grown, particularly so during the last 25 years after the collapse of the Central Somali Government in January 1991, when large ethnic populations migrated from the southern regions of Somalia to settle in their ancestral land.

Created Date Wednesday, 11 May 2016

ZEILA District Conflict and Security Assessment - 2016

altThe Zeila (Zeylac) is officially1 the capital of Zeila district, under the Awdal region, on the Northern coast of Somaliland. The districts capital is the historical port city Zeila, situated around 25 km from the Djibouti border. Close to the city, are six islands, which because of their rich nature, marine and bird life have been chosen to become an official marine park of Somaliland. The most famous of the islands is Sa’aadad-Din. The port city Zeila has been an important intercontinental trading post as far back as people can remember. The district became part of British Somaliland in 1888, after it had been a part of the Ottoman Empire for more than 300 years. The evidence can still be found in Zeila, which hosts remaining, though badly damaged buildings, from the time of the Ottoman Empire. Zeila also have one of the world’s oldest Mosques, the two-Mihrab2 mosque which dates back to the 7th century. The mosque could be a testimony that the town became an early Isalmic Centre with the arrivals of Muslims shortly after the hijra.3 Though the ruins of the mosque barley indicate the two mihrabs.

Created Date Wednesday, 11 May 2016

KISMAYO District Conflict and Security Assessment - 2016

altSituated 328 miles to the south west of Mogadishu, near the mouth of Jubba River, Kismayo is believed to be the largest city. Being the headquarters of the Lower Juba Region, it is currently servig the Jubaland Government as their temporary base. Besides, Kismayo is known for its strategic significance gained from the fishing industry, revenues from the port as well aslivestock trade and agricultural products which made it the commercial hub of Jubaland regions and beyond. Moreover, its strategic influence made it the bone of contention for warlords and the militia who waged wars in a bid to get access to the sea port and airport which not only guarantees economic gains but also security protection. In the mid 2000s, the city was under the mercy of religious groups, mainly the sympathizers of the Union of Islamic Courts (UIC) which later gave birth to Alshabaab. For many subsequent years, the city was under the control of Alshabaab serving them as their main economic nerve as it supplied them with a steady income in the form of taxes. However, they lost the strategic city to the Raskamboni forces supported by the Kenyan Defence Forces, which installed the pillars for the current Jubaland administration. The loss of Kismayo was a fierce blow for Alshabaab as it had frozen one of its key economic sources. Today, it is controlled by the Jubaland Government as part of Somalia’s federal arrangements with the support of AMISOM forces – another major political ator in Somalia in general and Jubaland in particular

Created Date Wednesday, 11 May 2016

ODWEYNE District Conflict and Security Assessment - 2016

altOdweyne is officially the capital of Odweyne District under the Togdheer region of Somaliland, however unofficially it is the capital of the DaadhMadheedh region, one of the regions created in 2008, which is still not ratified by the parliament. It is located in a region known for pastoralism; where there are over 60 villages or communities that fall under the ambit of Odweyne. The district has a local council that comprise of 17 councillors, including one female councillor, who have elected a mayor among themselves. Odweyne was a major base for the Somali National Army troops before the collapse of the state. It was a strategically important base, thus this location became a hotbed of heavy fighting between Somali National Army (SNA) and Somali National Movement (SNM) in the late 1980s.

Created Date Wednesday, 11 May 2016

Dolow District Confilict and Security Assessment - 2016


Dolow is one of the seven districts of Gedo region in the newly formed Jubaland administration. It is located right on the Jubba river as it straddles the border line between Ethiopia and Somalia. It is about 31 miles away on the South of Luuq and about 27 miles away to the north of Balad-Hawa. The town shares international borders with Dolow Addo in the Ethiopian Somali Region on the west only divided by the RiverIt is said to be the smallest district in the entire Jubaland administration, in terms of areal size. Its residents make their living by farming along the river banks and on the plains in the interior. Some of them also dwell in a pastoral life. The town often swaps population as it is located in international borders with Ethiopia and Kenya.    Before the demise of the Somali state, like many other towns along the border, Dolow was affected by the strained  relations between Ethiopia and Somalia. Thus, its inhabitants evacuated many times losing their properties and loved ones. More so, it has survived in the predicament of  rival militias in the early 1990s, and later the Ethiopian pre-emptive incursions against extremism in Somalia

Created Date Thursday, 07 January 2016

Salahley District Conflict and Security Assessment - 2015

altSecurity is provided by both formal and informal entities. Police as a formal security provider is overstretched and operate under poor transportation to respond to security incidences in the distant places outside Salahley town. Despite of this there are no reported security alarms or prevalent outbreak of crime and violence in the town and over the 28 villages that fall under its ambit, as the role of the informal security providers such as the elders and local committees is very pivotal to the provision of security. However, the district is adjacent to the Ethiopian border, therefore, cross-border security issues need sufficient presence of formal security providers.

Created Date Thursday, 07 January 2016

Burtinle District Conflict and Security Assessment - 2015

altThe District is headed by a Mayor and various departments who help deliver basic services to its inhabitants. Compared to the previous local council where there had been allegations of incompetence, and inactivity, the new administration garnered public support by holding continuous consultation meetings with stakeholders and various civil society groups, along with raising awareness of the pressing needs in the community. A clear sign that the local council has community backing is the acceptance of levying taxes for the purpose of service delivery. Therefore majority of participants reported awareness of the services that were provided by the council.

Created Date Thursday, 07 January 2016

Balanbale District Conflict and Security Assessment - 2015

altThe most pressing needs which the community faced were  poor health, unemployment and poor education. The limitations of the formal instituions, perhaps explain why nearly equal portions of respondents held high levels of confidence as well as low levels of confidence in the local council. Which further alludes to the reason why a majority of respondents were not aware of any change in the performance of the local council.  Whilst majority of FGD participants were not aware of any clan or group conflicts, there were disputes that arose from competition over resources, drought driving people to migrate and settle in different districts, causing pressure and sometimes fighting with new communities. Neigbouring clans were also competing for land, water channels and grazing land, drawing up borders that did not exist in previous years, leading sometimes to violence if those lines were not respected. Respondents also expressed concern over political conflicts between ASWJ and the federal government, and saw that as potential trigger for instability.

Created Date Thursday, 07 January 2016

Afgoye District Conflict and Security Assessment - 2015

altThe people in Afgooye enjoy general peace and stability. Inter-clan conflict has not been a major concern in the past one year. However, land tenure disputes, rape, Al-Shabaab attacks and clashes among the different security providers pose a threat to the security of the district. Illegal checkpoints in roads leading to the Afgooye town were also mentioned as causes of concern regarding general security.
To consolidate peace and harmony, the legal and security institutions ought to be strengthened; the illegal checkpoints curtailed; and the perpetrators of violence have to face the law regardless of social and political status.