As a national capital, the modern history of Mogadishu is closely related to the history of the Somali Republic. A thriving, cosmopolitan city in the years following independence in 1960, the city’s various clan groups were gradually antagonized as the regime of General Siad Barre became increasingly repressive in the 1970s and 1980s. When Barre fled in 1991, the conflict that had played out in various regions, particularly in the northwest of the country, rapidly concentrated on the capital. The 1990s were characterized by fierce fighting between a succession of warlords and the failure of a peacekeeping mission in 1992–1993. By 2000, regional diplomatic efforts reinstated a national government, albeit with a very limited presence on the ground. By 2004, a new peacekeeping mission was brought in, this time under the African Union, but in 2006, it was the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) that succeeded in re-establishing a measure of stability in Mogadishu. Their reign was short-lived however, as an Ethiopian military intervention in December of the same year forced the ICU to disband. Meanwhile, opposition to the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) coalesced around two new movements, al-Shabaab and Hizbul-Islam.