Created Date Sunday, 01 March 2015
Modified Date Sunday, 01 March 2015

Bossaso District Safety and Security Baselilne Report

altThe coastal town of Bossaso has experienced a dramatic population increase in the past 20 years, since violence in the south has triggered migratory flows and displaced many economic activities to its port. Despite having experienced heavy fighting in the early 1990s, today, according to the Crime and Victimization Survey (CVS), most of its population feels that the security situation had been notably improving over the 12 months preceding the survey.

Created Date Sunday, 01 March 2015

Buroa District Safety and Security Baselilne Report

altBurao District suffered a turbulent history in the 1990s. From 1991 to 1997, violent confrontations erupted first between clan militias fighting for control over the spoils of war – particularly the heavy weaponry left behind by the Somali army after the defeat of Siad Barre – and later between rebellious war veterans and the nascent Somaliland administration, which was struggling to assert its control over the clans. Eventually, inter-clan negotiations from 1997 to 1998 established a stable local governance structure. Remarkably, the administration also succeeded in disarming local militia groups without any external intervention or support.

Created Date Monday, 02 March 2015

Galkayo District Safety and Security Baselilne Report

altGalkayo District is characterized by being divided under two different regional administrations: Puntland in the north, and Galmudug to the south. This  administrative/political division dates back at least to colonial times and reflects in some way the area’s clan composition, mainly the Darod to the north, and the Hawiye to the south, with a number of derived sub-clans. However, although the district’s division has pervasive consequences on conflict dynamics and cooperation between governance and security actors, it should not be viewed as an ineluctable – or even the principal – driver of insecurity.

Created Date Monday, 02 March 2015

Lasanod District Safety and Security Baselilne Report

altThe district of Las Anod lies at the heart of the disputed region of Sool, between Somaliland and Puntland. It is predominantly inhabited by various lineages of the Dhulbahante clan group (Darod). As early as the late 19th century, the area was the setting for an anti-colonial struggle known as the Darawish resistance. In the 1970s and 1980s, Siad Barre’s divide-and-rule policy revived intra- and inter-clan tensions. In 1991, the region was incorporated into the new state of Somaliland, but Puntland took over stewardship of the area from 2002 to 2007. Deteriorating security led allegiances to shift once again, however, and Somaliland regained control of the area in 2007. In 2009, the Sool, Sanaag and Cayn (SSC) militia was created.

Created Date Monday, 02 March 2015
Modified Date Monday, 02 March 2015

Mogadishu District Safety and Security Baselilne Report

altAs a national capital, the modern history of Mogadishu is closely related to the history of the Somali Republic. A thriving, cosmopolitan city in the years following independence in 1960, the city’s various clan groups were gradually antagonized as the regime of General Siad Barre became increasingly repressive in the 1970s and 1980s. When Barre fled in 1991, the conflict that had played out in various regions, particularly in the northwest of the country, rapidly concentrated on the capital. The 1990s were characterized by fierce fighting between a succession of warlords and the failure of a peacekeeping mission in 1992–1993. By 2000, regional diplomatic efforts reinstated a national government, albeit with a very limited presence on the ground. By 2004, a new peacekeeping mission was brought in, this time under the African Union, but in 2006, it was the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) that succeeded in re-establishing a measure of stability in Mogadishu. Their reign was short-lived however, as an Ethiopian military intervention in December of the same year forced the ICU to disband. Meanwhile, opposition to the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) coalesced around two new movements, al-Shabaab and Hizbul-Islam.